Hello Guys,

In this post we are going to disscuss about the file /etc/shadow. To change the password of the user on linux system we use the command ‘passwd‘, But on /etc/passwd file we don’t find any password details of the user, rather we can find it on /etc/shadow file.

Lets dive into the file for more details,

Snippets of /etc/shadow file



The /etc/shadow has 9 fields.

User : Encrypted Password : Date of last change password : Min. password age : Max. password age : Password warning period : Password interactive period : Account expiration date : Reserved field

where as ‘ : is the field separator.

Again within the encrypted Password (2nd field) we can separate it by ‘ $ ‘

$ id $ Salt $ Actual Encrypted Password.

Id Hash Algorithm Name Length
1 MD5 22 characters
2a Blow Fish
5 SHA 256 (since glibc 2.7) 43 characters
6 SHA 512 (since glibc 2.7) 86 characters

The ‘Salt‘ and ‘Encrypted Password’ are drawn from the set [a-z A-Z 0-9 . /]

To change the hashing algorithm, we need to change it in the file /etc/pam.d/common-password.

For the user ‘sathish‘ you can note down $ 6 $, which actually indicates that the hashing algorithm is SHA 512 and the length of encrypted password is 86 characters(note from the table).

Snapshot : 0

File Name : /etc/pam.d/common-password


Inference :

  • Green Encircled : You can note down that the hashing algorithm is ‘sha512‘ .

Snapshot : 1

Now we will be suggesting to use ‘sha256’ hashing algorithm.

Just simply edit the above line to ‘sha256’ using your favorite editor(comment the line using ‘#’).

Edit to use sha256

  • You can note down that ‘sha256‘ is enabled now.

Snapshot : 2

Now we will check that hashing algorithm is sha256; that can be verified by creating a user.

padm user created

Inference :

  • The blue encircled($5$) for the user padm uses the hashing algorithm sha256 based on the id 5.
  • Also note that the changes have not affected the user sathish since its holding the same value ‘6’ which refers to sha512 which is of 86 characters length.
  • So changes will not be affecting the existing users.

Snapshot : 3

Now we want to force all the other users to change the password, so that their hashing algorithm will change from * (anything 😉 ) to sha256 .

Now we are going to list when the password was last changed by the user.

chage -l sathish

when password changed

Inference :

  • Password changed lastly on ‘Feb 15, 2013’

Snapshot : 4

Now we force the user ‘sathish’ to change the password. This can be done by the command as follows

chage -d 0 sathish

force the user to change the password

Snapshot : 5

On the next successful login of the user ‘sathish’, system will prompt the user to change the password.

hash algo sha256

Inference :

  • Yellow encircled : 5 refers => hashing algorithm sha256.
  • Red Encircled : Encrypted password length is 43 characters.

Snapshot : 6

Lets verify when is the password changed for the user sathish recently.

password changes recently

Summary :

  • /etc/shadow file contains the information about password, like hashing algorithm, password expiry, interactive and so on.
  • /etc/pam.d/common-password password related modules in this file we can specify which hashing algorithm to use.
  • chage -l <<user>> is list when the password has been changed recently.
  • chage -d 0 <<user>> is used to change the password forcibly.

Everything in linux is file, Learn more about files. 🙂 😉





Linux : How to change the Password Hashing Algorithm on linux system

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